Plasticstrends

  • Increase font size
  • Default font size
  • Decrease font size

News Flash

Can you “Cool Your Roof” - reports researchers from Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

Polymers help Addidas to launch lightest soccer boots and 2010 FIFA World cup match ball never seen before in the field

Stanford Univ researchers make Jell-O-like conducting polymer hydrogels

French scientists tout first use of nano-structured assemblies that could revolutionize dentistry

Siver nanowire electrodes for flexible electronics

USA researchers develop all-polymer multilayer coating to retard fire and to suppress smoke

Bayer uses PC film Makrofol? for it's new Innosec Fusion? technology to stop counterfeiting

Scientists from IBM and Stanford University are developing new plastics recycling process

Researchers gather to discuss advances in organic photovoltaics (OPV)

US researchers develop shape memory polymer nanocomposites exhibiting fast actuation speed

AMI unveils the North American Bioplastics technology agenda

Researchers review how to characterize polymer nanocomposites by different microscopicy techniques

USA researchers report polymeric blood-resistant surgical glue that can repair minimally invasive heart defects

Work of North Carolina State Univ. researchers shows how to remove radioactive elements from drinking water

If you follow plastics electronics - follow Unidym’s innovative product lines

US and South Korean researchers develop a printing technique to make high performance CNT transistors

Austrian researcher reports new opportunities from Silicon oxide Nanofilms

Prof. Alan Heegers group demonstrated the potential of plastics solar cells

Austrian scientists claim to be the first to have developed an image sensor that is fully transparent

MIT researchers show how to draw Polyethylene as nanofibers and get a very high thermal conductivity

How computer modelling & 3D printing create fracture resistant composites – reports Stratasys and MIT researchers

Mannigton converts large stickers from 2010 winter games into commercial flooring

A new microcellular injection molding process for polycarbonate using water

Green Composites - all you wanted to know about

A team of researchers demonstrate plastics and graphene can work together to make touch screen device a reality

Norner touts major research project on polymers based on carbon dioxide

Cima NanoTech flexes mussels with its non-Indium Tin Oxide, high performance transparent conductors

IKV researchers report thermoplastic/metal hybrid materials for Direct manufacturing electronic part

Alberta scientists help to make Canada’s first bio-composite based electric vehicle body design

Current trends and future prospects for flame retardants in polymeric materials

MIT researchers develop first Solar Thermal Fuel storage platform in solid-state

Japanese scientists report a unique, smart and self-healing polymer nanocomposite hydrogels

Korean scientists provide a different twist to the “Smart Window” technology

NIST develops greener solution to challenge commercial fire retardants

Harvard Univ researchers show how soft robotics could navigate a difficult obstacle

Are you an injection moulder, you may want to read the ultimate in mould cooling article

Electric Glue: Another twist to make controlled polymer-surface adhesion

Researchers show stretchy battery for flexible and stretchable electronics

Braskem S.A. is leading the way to manufacture biobased polyethylene using catalytic dehydration

Yale scientists develop high performance thin film composite membrane

A review on polymer/bioactive glass nanocomposites provides current trends in polymer research

GM recycles oil soaked booms from the Gulf of Mexico for its Chevrolet Volt under hood parts

Plastic Logic sees mass production of flexible display in 2008

Rice Univ (USA) researchers grew high quality graphene from polystyrene, cookies, grass, cockroach leg & dog feces

New ambipolar polymer beats others: reports US researchers

Binder free multilayer graphene based polymer composite for high performance supercapacitor electrodes

Advanced nanocomposite membrane technology of NanoH2O turns it to a Global clean technology company

MIT team aims to develop application specific surgical adhesives to seal tissues

Strain Paint: an alternative to strain gauges

Harvard University researchers design stretchable, transparent ionic conductors

Can polymer reinforced aerogel make a space mission? University of Akron researchers think so!

Polymers can be used to package insulin into a pill for diabetes treatment reports Indian scientists

Swedish researchers show highest reported charge capacities for all polymer paper-based battery

Something old... Something new.... produces an interesting marriage

Caltech researchers show through telechelic polymers how to produce a safer and a cleaner fuel

Scientists from Sweden and USA showed electronics can truly be organic or say truly be plastics

How blood can clot to heal a wound - Science reports

Singapore researchers touts corn starch can help solve body armour and protective sports padding

Sabic Innovative Plastics unveils its newly developed a clear flame retardant Polycarbonate copolymer

How Collagen nanofibers could find use in Tissue Engineering

Polymer bank notes on the rise to avoid counterfeit paper currencies

For the first time, IBM researchers showed 3D molecular structure could be observed

Stanford researchers use cheap plastics film to make safe lithium batteries

UCLA scientists showed how simple it could be to make conducting polymer thin films

It is time to make “Perfect Plastic” reports UK researchers

Work of North Carolina State Univ. researchers shows how to remove radioactive elements from drinking water

German researchers unveiled a green approach to electrospinning technique for making biodegradable nanofibres

Researchers develop unique printable thin film supercapacitor using SWCNT

Carbon3D, a Canadian company unveils a breakthrough technology for layerless 3D printing

Can you 3D print yourself? TwinKinds of Germany shows just that!

Chinese researchers made a bendy polymer that could separate aromatics hydrocarbons from aliphatic

Practical Devices provide useful power from the body

World’s first all-plastic LED lamp comes from Japan

Wax could be green too – touts GreenMantra Technolgies!

Block copolymers could create hard disks with 10 tera-bit-per-Square-inch:Researchers predict

McMaster university (Canada) researchers developed flexible solar cell technology

Rutgers Univ researchers moves plastic electronics with graphene based PS thin films

Univ of Texas @ Austin scientists reported method to produce a large scale reduced graphene oxide

Current status in graphene based polymer nanocomposites – a review

Can Gas Jet process challenge electrospinning in producing polymeric nanofibers?

Canadian researchers claim world’s most efficient “inverted” OPV solar cells

Polymer helps to designing higher capacity Li-ion battery

Non-toxic, liquid bandage from Chesson Labs of Durham, NC is ready for the healthcare market

Plastics help design non-shatter pint glass to prevent pub attacks

Bio-succinic acid is becoming new green platform chemical for plastics

Teijin Techno Products claims to be world’s first mass producer of aramid nanofibers

Plastrec, a Quebec recycler unveils recycled PET production combining two plastics technologies

Will your windows generate power one day?

How plastics helping revolutionize stretchable electronics applications – a review, not to be missed!

Using biodegradable polymer, University of Basque country researcher report on bone regeneration

University of Texas at Austin researchers show use of polymer membranes for fracking in shale gas

Are you interested in self-healing polymers – must read reviews

Arkema unveils a range of "green" polymers for its textile market

ZogglesTM earns Invention of the year 2010 award and keeps the fog away

Stanford university researchers detect mercury ions in sea water using organic polymer transistor sensor

Can polymer reinforced aerogel make a space mission? University of Akron researchers think so!

UC Berkley researchers have developed paper thin e-skin that responds to touch

Nanoparticle coating prevents ice build up

Stratasys touts World’s first color multi-material 3D printer for rubber & plastics products

Battelle researchers are improving PLA for injection molding applications

Brazilian scientists are actively pursuing bioplastics research and innovation

Innovations in design come from plastics to win several 2009 International Design Excellence Awards

Can you “Cool Your Roof” - reports researchers from Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

James Cropper Speciality Paper touts recycling of disposable coffee cups

Self-healing plastics healing like human skin

Princeton university researchers embedded piezoelectric material onto polymer as energy harvester

In Milan, art and science get together to showcase Vegetal, weather resistant designer chair

A novel technique to manufacture continuous twisted yarn from aligned PAN nanofibers

Umass, Amherst researchers find ways to hold 300 kilograms of weight using sticky tape

Japanese researchers are developing stereo-block type PLAs for high performance materials

Oil-SAP, a novel development to clean-up oil spill & recovery from Penn State University, USA

3D systems introduces non-halogenated flame retardant for aircraft applications

Fluoropolymer – A Solution for the Most Extreme Weathering Conditions

E-mail Print PDF

figure_7_cabletiesPoly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF), a thermoplastic fluropolymer is selected by architects worldwide because of its proven long-term weathering resistance in outdoor environments. Plastics that are not modified may become brittle or weak over time and/or lose their original attractive appearance. This paper looks at the weathering stability of Kynar® resin in a thin film geometry after 5 years exposure in South Florida.  Thin films are more sensitive to UV degradation than thicker specimens.    Unlike traditional thermoplastics, Kynar® resins do not need UV or thermal stabilizers.  This means that the stability seen in this test program is “built-in” to the backbone chemistry. Thus, their utility and performance in applications that require long-term outdoor protection is largely unrivaled.

Plastics are being utilized in a multitude of outdoor applications that previously were only reserved for inorganic materials due to their light weight,  good insulation properties, safety to the touch, corrosion resistance,  clarity, and range of color.,  Now, they have applications such as coatings, glazing, furniture, protective housing products, decking, signs, play areas, sports equipment, automotive and other transportation parts, chemical plant & industrial equipment, and fasteners.  While the performance of plastics has often been found to be cost effective, safe, and attractive, there can at times be a major issue in resistant to sunlight.  Plastics that are not modified may become brittle or weak over time and/or lose their original attractive appearance.  Plastics that are modified with additives such as antioxidants can often last much longer in harsh conditions but there can still be concern that the modifiers do not stay in the polymer  during storage before use and/or during processing.  Having plastic materials that are inherently UV stable without  additives can be a big advantage in extreme applications where long life with complete retention of properties is desired.

To put the comments above in perspective, Figure 1 shows Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images at 5000X magnification of various polymers after 5000 hours of QUVA accelerated weathering. While PVF, nylon, and phenolic based polymers show clear evidence of degradation and erosion, the Kynar® PVDF maintains its integrity and ability to continue to protect and serve as an outdoor weathering barrier or structure.

                           phenolic_figure_1                                                                                        nylon_figure_1

Figure 1: Weathering Effects on Polymers: Phenolics (above left); Nylon (above right); PVF (below left); and Kynar PVDF (below right)

                           pvf_figure1                                                                                         kynarpvdf_figure1 

Kynar® resin is a highly nonreactive and pure thermoplastic fluoropolymer. The stability derived from vinylidene fluoride monomer [(C2H2F2)n-] actually comes from the high strength of the carbon-fluorine bond.   The high fluorine content within the polymer backbone is not affected by UV exposure which normally degrades other polymers. Therefore, no additives are needed to stabilize Kynar® Fluoropolymers against the harmful effects of solar radiation.  Thus, it has a proven history of exceptional UV protection, thermal and chemical resistance, moisture barrier properties, and dirt shedding performance.

The aim of this work is to assess how fluorine containing polymeric backbone can withstand extreme weathering conditions.
Thin films were chosen for this outdoor study to allow for a more sensitive weathering effect.  Degradation can be seen much more quickly with film samples than with larger molded parts, where surface degradation can be masked due to the greater thickness of the samples. 

This study examined six of the most widely used Kynar® thermoplastic fluropolymer grades. Each grade was made into a clear film using melt cast extrusion. Kynar® 720 resin is a homopolymer with higher strength and rigidity than the remaining five Kynar Flex® copolymer grades.

table_1

Film samples were oriented at a 45° angle with south facing exposure and were placed for exposure in Miami, Florida where the annual yearly UV exposure is 360 MJ/m2.  The outdoor conditions in Florida allowed the samples to have an abundance of UV and weathering exposure, thereby providing data indicative of some of the world’s harshest conditions.  Since testing began in 2010, there have been no significant changes in the mechanical or optical properties of the film samples, as described below.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

As seen in Table 1, the mechanical properties of Kynar® clear films remain stable and relatively unchanged. Samples were tested in accordance with ASTM D882, the Standard Test Method for the Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting.   A representative stress strain curve, seen in Figure 1, shows no significant change in mechanical properties occurs over time. There is no loss in tensile yield strength or elongation despite the harsh weathering exposure.

figure_2_stress_strainFigure 2

Figure 2:Stress Strain curve of thin Kynar® PVDF clear films

OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The optical properties of Kynar clear films also remain unaffected by weathering. Changes in color are measured as a function of delta E*. As a rule of

thumb, changes in delta E* greater than 2 are visible by eye. As seen in the figure below, none of the films have a delta E* greater than 0.80, well below the threshold of significance

figure_3_color_change  

 

Figure 3: Measurements of colour change

Haze and transmission levels were recorded using the BYK-Gardner Haze-Gard Plus in Accordance with ASTM D1003. Again, no significant loss in transmission or haze properties is seen in any of the Kynar® clear films.

figure_4_haze

Figure 4: Haze properties of Kynar clear films (above); and Transmission properties of Kynar clear films (below) 

figure_4_transmission

 

SURFACE PROPERTIES

The best way to prove weatherable nature of the Kynar® films is to examine the surface properties under high powered microscopy. Figure 5 shows a SEM image (100X magnification) of a representative film before exposure and after 5 years of weathering.  The surface remains smooth with no signs of pitting or chalking.

                                       figure_5_unweathered                                                                                        figure-5_weathered

Figure 5:  SEM images of un-weathered control sample (left); and weathered sample after 5 years of weathering (right) 

 To check for any evidence of polymer degradation, FTIR scan was performed. As is seen in Figure 6. there is no IR evidence for degradation, as both (Control and weathered) spectral curves are overlaid, showing no significant change in the properties of Kynar® PVDF after five years of weathering. 

figure_6_ftir

Figure 6:  FTIR spectra of non-weathered and 5 years weathered samples

APPLICATIONS

While clear films were examined in this study, the data suggests Kynar® PVDF can be considered for long life in numerous parts or products commonly used in outdoor applications. Pipes, hoses, tanks, automotive and aircraft parts and other injection molded or extruded parts that are used outdoors can benefit the owner/user by being made with Kynar® PVDF.  Figure 7 shows a representative application of Kynar® cable ties commonly used in outdoor settings.  The idea of this use of injection molded Kynar® PVDF is that if the use of the cable tie was on a high tower in a hard to get to a location  exposed to extreme sunlight, there would be less worry about having to replace these fasteners over time compared to  another polymer. 

figure_7_cableties

Figure 7: Kynar PVDF cable ties

SUMMARY

Kynar® PVDF has a history of superior weathering performance. Current work examining Kynar® PVDF placed in harsh outdoor conditions make it a unrivaled polymer choice for applications where UV radiation and other weathering phenomena are daily occurrences.  With no fillers or stabilizers, Kynar® PVDF is a unique thermoplastic capable of withstanding extreme conditions just by utilizing the nature of its strong chemical backbone.  The films examined show no changes despite having a geometry susceptible to degradation.

 

                            Averie Palovcak                                                                                                     Bryan Douglas

 

                          averie_palovcak                                                                                               bryan_douglas

 

Averie Palovcak received both a B.S. and M.S. in Biomedical Engineering from Drexel University.  She is currently employed for Arkema Inc. as an application engineer for the Technical Polymers division.  Averie has completed over 5 years of research on polymers used in drug delivery and has presented findings at the Harvard University and at the American Chemical Society meetings.

 

Bryan Douglas is employed for Arkema Inc as a Sr. Staff Technician in Fluoropolymers for 5 years with concentration focus in physical testing of polymers. He has worked in the area of polymers in Technical and R&D centers for the past 19 years. Bryan has 10 years in color matching and additive research experience for color concentrate companies. Bryan is currently a voting committee member of ASTM.